|I've been a cheerleader for eLearning for the last several
years but crappy implementation is grawing away at my faith. My mantra for
2002 is that the eLearner is a customer. She must be sold. He must be satisfied.
This is not about "getting them trained." No, this is about forming
a long-term, mutually rewarding relationship. We've got a ways to go. I
expect to have a book out on this subject later in 2002.
Success Factors: eLearning Solutions, Cappuccino, Deloitte
e-learning development vision - It's a process with up's and down's.
North Berwick, Scotland, 1996
Instructor Competencies from Learning Peaks, Patti Shank. A good
online instructor wears many hats.
What's an eTrainer?
& New Role: eLearning Guide,
Internet Time Group 2/2000
It's Time for Your Computer Training, Fast Company, 5/2000. Empower the
learners and let them have fun!
Training Weenie Syndrome: Five Foolish Things Trainers Do To Demote
Training © INSIGHT ED Patti Shank Trainer, don't shoot yourself in the
The Lie of Online Learning, Training
magazine, March 2000. "Let’s move learning out of the workday and into
the employees’ own—uncompensated—time. No one wants to tell you that the
anytime of online learning is supposed to be after work and that
the anyplace is at home."
Learning in the Real World. Skeptics'
views on why we should be cautious about putting computers into children's
schools. "In the real world we can teach, explore and learn the patterns
of connection which link different people, plants, animals and places.
If education software even attempts to deal with these crucial concepts,
the limits of the media may make the presentation inflexible, superficial,
and inadequate." Much of this reasoning applies to computer-mediated training
of adults as well.
ERP Training Stinks,
CIO (6/00). "The average ERP implementation takes 23 months, has a total
cost of ownership of $15 million and rewards (so to speak) the business
with an average negative net present value of $1.5 million. And the news
"But the consensus that's emerging is that the training
that matters isn't techy, "this field shows this; this button does that"
training. In fact, what we normally call training is increasingly being
shown to be relatively worthless. What's called for, it seems, is an ability
to figure out the underlying flow of information through the business
itself. The traditional view of training may blind the unwary to its significance
and to the tightly woven links that exist between training, change management
and staff adequacy."
"The first problem is that word: training. It conjures up images
of dogs jumping through hoops. This is not helpful."
Adoption and barriers to eLearning
& Approaches to Implementation, both from
David Simmonds at Forum Corporate
Research Dog's readniess assessments: Introduction
Management and eLearning by Tom Werner
Knowledge Management by Carl Binder
it Time to Exchange Skinner's Teaching Machine for Dewey's Toolbox?
New Role: eLearning Guide
Zounds - Compelling
in Instructional Design. ERIC Digest
Emotional Intelligence Consortium
|What Daniel Goleman calls emotional
intelligence is the source of ROI, human happiness, responsible
behavior -- well, what more could you want? It's taken a backseat
to such mundane issues as IT training because its payoff is not
immediate, engineers don't get it, and it's a tough nut to crack.
This is a major opportunity.
EQ to the Workplace (research paper)
Network Architectures For E-Learning Applications
tells how Cisco wires things together in support of content
on demand, broadcast, and virtual classrooms.
Research on Telepresence
Benchmarks for Success in Internet-Based
jay @ 07-May-00
A study of distance learning benchmarks at six colleges prepared
by The Institute for Higher Education Policy for the NEA and
Blackboard. April 2000.
While the methodology is a bit dodgy (literature review followed
by ratings from administrators, faculty, and students), the
study is provocative.
The benchmarks considered essential for quality Internet-based
distance education are:
- Institutional Support -- a technology plan that
addresses security, backup, system integrity; technical
reliability; and central support for infrastructure
- Course development -- periodic updates, require
students to engage in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
- Teaching/Learning -- interaction between student
and faculty (voicemail and/or email suffice), constructive
and timely feedback, students learn research methods
- Course structure -- triage up front to cull out
unsuitable candidates, supplemental course nfo that outlines
objectives, concepts, ideas, learning outcomes, library
resources (virtual is okay), common expectations for tme
to complete assignments and receive feedback
- Student support -- hands-on training in system
use, help line, rapid turn on answers
- Faculty support --- technical assistance in course
development, instructor training, written resources to deal
with issues arising from student use of electronic data
- Evaluation and assessment - use several standards,
learning outcomes are reiewed regularly to ensure clarity,
utility, and appropriateness.
Quality on the
acting as a role model
gaining and keeping balance
giving expert advice
dealing with adversity
making tough decisions
social skill development
inner peace and reflection
finanical or economic well being
|"The only things worth learning are the things
you learn after you know it all."
for Learning at a Distance
Morgan (1991) suggests that distant students who are not confident about
their learning tend to concentrate on memorizing facts and details in order
to complete assignments and write exams. As a result, they end up with a
poor understanding of course material. He views memorization of facts and
details as a “surface approach” to learning and summarizes it as follows:
Distant students need to become more selective and focused in their learning
in order to master new information. The focus of their learning needs to
shift them from a “surface approach” to a “deep approach”. Morgan (1991)
summarizes this approach as follows:
- Surface approach:
- Focus on the "signs" (e.g., the text or instruction itself).
- Focus on discrete elements.
- Memorize information and procedures for tests.
- Unreflectively associate concepts and facts.
- Fail to distinguish principles from evidence, new information
- Treat assignments as something imposed by the instructor.
- External emphasis focusing on the demands of assignments and exams
leading to a knowledge that is cut-off from everyday reality.
The shift from “surface” to “deep” learning is not automatic. Brundage,
Keane, and Mackneson (1993) suggest that adult students and their instructors
must face and overcome a number of challenges before learning takes place
including: becoming and staying responsible for themselves; "owning" their
strengths, desires, skills, and needs; maintaining and increasing self-esteem;
relating to others; clarifying what is learned; redefining what legitimate
knowledge is; and dealing with content. These challenges are considered
in relation to distance education:
- Deep Approach:
- Focus on what is "signified" (e.g., the instructor’s arguments).
- Relate and distinguish new ideas and previous knowledge.
- Relate concepts to everyday experience.
- Relate and distinguish evidence and argument.
- Organize and structure content.
- Internal emphasis focusing on how instructional material relates
to everyday reality.
- "Becoming and staying responsible for themselves".
High motivation is required to complete distant courses because the
day-to-day contact with teachers and other students is typically lacking.
Instructors can help motivate distant students by providing consistent
and timely feedback, encouraging discussion among students, being well
prepared for class, and by encouraging and reinforcing effective student
- "Owning one’s strengths, desires, skills, needs".
Students need to recognize their strengths and limitations. They also
need to understand their learning goals and objectives. The instructor
can help distant students to explore their strengths/limitations and
their learning goals/objectives by assuming a facilitative role in the
learning process. Providing opportunities for students to share their
personal learning goals and objectives for a course helps to make learning
more meaningful and increases motivation.
- "Maintaining and increasing self-esteem". Distant
students may be afraid of their ability to do well in a course. They
are balancing many responsibilities including employment and raising
children. Often their involvement in distance education is unknown to
those they work with and ignored by family members. Student performance
is enhanced if learners set aside time for their instructional activities
and if they receive family support in their academic endeavors. The
instructor can maintain student self-esteem by providing timely feedback.
It is critical for teachers to respond to students’ questions, assignments,
and concerns in a personalized and pleasant manner, using appropriate
technology such as fax, phone, or computer. Informative comments that
elaborate on the individual student’s performance and suggest areas
for improvement are especially helpful.
- "Relating to others". Students often learn most effectively
when they have the opportunity to interact with other students. Interaction
among students typically leads to group problem solving. When students
are unable to meet together, appropriate interactive technology such
as E-mail should be provided to encourage small group and individual
communication. Assignments in which students work together and then
report back or present to the class as a whole, encourage student-to-student
interaction. Ensure clear directions and realistic goals for group assignments
- "Clarifying what is learned". Distant students need
to reflect on what they are learning. They need to examine the existing
knowledge frameworks in their heads and how these are being added to
or changed by incoming information. Examinations, papers, and class
presentations provide opportunities for student and teacher to evaluate
learning. However, less formal methods of evaluation will also help
the students and teacher to understand learning. For example, periodically
during the course the instructor can ask students to write a brief reflection
on what they have learned and then provide an opportunity for them to
share their insights with other class members.
- "Redefining what legitimate knowledge is". Brundage,
Keane, and Mackneson (1993) suggest that adult learners may find it
difficult to accept that their own experience and reflections are legitimate
knowledge. If the instructor takes a facilitative rather than authoritative
role, students will see—their own experience as valuable and important
to their further learning. Burge (1993) suggests having learners use
first-person language to help them claim ownership of personal values,
experiences, and insights.
- "Dealing with content". Student learning is enhanced
when content is related to examples. Instructors tend to teach using
examples that were used when they received their training. For distance
learning to be effective, however, instructors must discover examples
that are relevant to their distant students. Encourage students to find
or develop examples that are relevant to them or their community.
Learning for purposes of IT Certification must
combine the motivational and social reinforcement academia is working
on with the PI/simulation approach of traditional IT training.
Enabling Learning in a Digital Age,
jay @ 24-Jun-00
This is about kids but applies to adult learning equally
The model that education has used for centuries considers the
student a vessel to be filled at regular intervals with knowledge.
The alternative I hope you´ll strive for is seeing
the student as co-discoverer of knowledge and the teacher
responsible for seeing that the discovery takes place. This
model may mean we don't need to be confined to a classroom
if discovery can take place in different spaces, even cyberspace.
The impact of today's information revolution on schools goes
vastly beyond replacing the old blackboard with a shiny whiteboard.
Technology is revolutionizing the very nature and dynamics
of the conventional classroom experience; this new learning
environment, by design, emphasizes students, autonomy and
Classroom learning will become student-driven, interactive,
experiential and collaborative - all goals long-cherished
by many educators but never before attainable. Students will
no longer passively receive information but will manage and
synthesize it and even contribute it.
They become not only takers, but givers creators --
of information. This level of interaction will herald new
types of student communities of practice.
The world need more problem-solvers.
It needs more explorers.
It needs more rough edges.
Enable learning, don´t teach. a good teacher doesn´t
teach at all. They enable students to teach themselves. And
it´s not just symantics. Enabling learning is entirely
different from teaching.
While a significant part of learning certainly comes from
teaching, much comes from exploration, from reinventing the
wheel and finding out for oneself. Until the computer, the
technology for teaching was limited to audiovisual devices
and distance learning by television, which did little more
than amplify the activity of teachers and the passivity of
The computer changed this balance radically. Suddenly, learning
by doing has the potential to become the rule rather than
the exception. Since computer simulation of just about anything
is now possible, one need not learn about a frog by dissecting
it. Instead, children can be asked to design frogs, to build
an animal with frog-like behavior, to modify that behavior,
to simulate the muscles, to play with the frog.
The opportunity is an unrealized potential.
The Future File
Emerging Standards Effort in eLearning by Ed Cohen, eLearning Magazine,
Torrents of tags
Much of what SCORM has assembled is preoccupied with the tracking, tagging,
and storing of content objects. The standards dwell at length upon "metadata,"
specifying the identifying tags that all learning objects in a course
should carry-be they graphics, text, animations, or simulations (see
"A Primer on Metdata for Learning Objects," e-learning, October,
p.26). For those who envision a future in which users wander through
vast content repositories filled with such objects-plucked from various
courses, each of them immaculately categorized and easy to use-SCORM
is a dream.
This focus on metadata labeling is understandable, given that we all
believe reusing course content will be crucial in the near future. Oddly
though, this standard may be both too demanding and not demanding enough.
If SCORM is ultimately dominated by a giant catalog of tagging requirements,
it would pose a daunting hurdle for companies with large amounts of
legacy content for dubious gains. And it would ignore important principles
of instructional design-which, if they were established as a uniform
standard, would help trainers and teachers get the most out of their
"Web-based training standards entered a new era in June when the
major developers agreed to make learning management systems (LMSs) and
content from different vendors work together. The agreement between
the Aviation Industry CBT Committee (AICC), the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Instructional Management Systems
(IMS) Global Learning Consortium is not an official partnership — yet.
And because it is informal in nature the responsibilities of the respective
parties haven’t been clearly defined. But it was determined that the
Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative of the Department of
Defense, which was the catalyst for the new spirit of cooperation, would
act as a coordinating body."
The Vision and the Hype, Learning Circuits, by Tom Barron The drive
to create industry-wide technology standards for e-learning is gaining
momentum and adherents. But some see perils--and posturing--amid the promise.
All about Learning
Technology Standards, LINEzine, Wayne Hodgins. Learnativity has the
articles, presentations, and links of standards visionary Wayne Hodgins.
Interoperability in e-Learning, Learning Circuits, by Harvi Singh.
In today's Internet economy, achieving integration and interoperability
in digital systems is increasingly important. Such integration is possible
with open protocols, which allow an organization or system to exchange
information with suppliers, partners, and customers in a format that
accommodates each organization's system. The same approach is being
applied in the e-learning arena, where a new breed of software application
frameworks and approaches seek to enable true interoperability of separate
systems. This article examines trends and enabling frameworks for making
true interoperability a reality.
Intro to Metadata Tagging, Learning Circuits, by Harvi Singh. Get
ready for the Dewey Decimal Classification system of e-learning
The Instructional Use of Learning
Objects, a book on the topic
Advanced Learning Infrastructure
Consortium (JAPAN) -- Objective is to establish an active society
by reasonably and effectively providing a learning environment which
enables anyone to learn anytime, anywhere, according to the goals, pace,
interests and understanding of individuals and groups. Also, to foster
experts who will be the origin of global competitiveness. Targets: Advanced
learning infrastructure that are from Primary and secondary institution
to high school, company training, and tertiary school; Technology and
Service; Learning system and contents that use information technology,
such as network. Examples: e-learning, Web-based training, technology-based
training, computer-based training, long distance learning.
World Wide Web Consortium -- Develops
interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and
tools) to lead the Web to its full potential, specifically XML.
Learning Technology Standards
Committee (LTSC) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) -- Formed in 1996. The mission is to develop technical
standards, recommended practices, and guides for software components,
tools, technologies and design methods that facilitate the development,
deployment, maintenance, and interoperation of computer implementations
of education and training components and systems.
Alliance of Remote Instructional
Authoring and Distribution Networks for Europe (ARIADNE) -- Develops
the results of the ARIADNE and ARIADNE II European Projects, which created
tools and methodologies for producing, managing and reusing computer-based
pedagogical elements and telematics supported training curricula.
IMS Global Learning
Consortium, Inc. (IMS) -- Developing and promoting open specifications
for facilitating online distributed learning activities, such as locating
and using educational content, tracking learner progress, reporting
learner performance, and exchanging student records between administrative
systems. IMS -- Meta
Tags and Knowledge Bits
Advanced Distributed Learning Network
-- Purpose is to ensure access to high-quality education and training
materials that can be tailored to individual learner needs and made
available whenever and wherever they are required. This initiative is
designed to accelerate large-scale development of dynamic and cost-effective
learning software and to stimulate an efficient market for these products
in order to meet the education and training needs of the military and
the nation's workforce of the future. It will do this through the development
of a common technical framework for computer and net-based learning
that will foster the creation of reusable learning content as "instructional
objects." Check out Plugfest 5.
The Aviation Industry CBT (Computer-Based
Training) Committee (AICC) -- An international association of technology-based
training professionals. The AICC develops guidelines for the aviation
industry in the development, delivery, and evaluation of CBT and related
The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
-- An open forum engaged in the development of interoperable online
metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business
models. DCMI's activities include consensus-driven working groups, global
workshops, conferences, standards liaison, and educational efforts to
promote widespread acceptance of metadata standards and practices. (If
you're invited, don't get out your passport. That's Dublin, Ohio.)
BLOCKS. HOW THE STANDARDS MOVEMENT PLANS TO REVOLUTIONIZE ELECTRONIC LEARNING,
a good overview from University Business
Judy Brown's home page
SCORM is mil-spec.
It will probably work in military apps where standards can be rigidly
enforced, and where performance outweighs price much more than in the
commercial sector. SCORM comes from the same place as $1000 hammers and
$10,000 toilet seats.
Corporations may find it easier to standardize learning as part of the
Web. It's XML, interoperable, flexible, and will soon be the underpinning
of business transactions. What better way to integrate learning and work?
The Semantic Web would enable us to build performance support directly
into the job (rather than as an add-on.)